Presentation Transcript The truth about Cro-Magnon: The truth about Cro-Magnon The Genetic history of Neanderthal, Sapiens, and Cro-Magnon. By: Richard Scroggins, M.S. References: References Neanderthal Genome Project (N.D.) Retrieved from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_genome_project Why Evolution is True (N.D.) Retrieved from Are there human races? | http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2012/02/28/are-there-human-races/ (((Rosenberg))) , N. A., J. K. Pritchard, J. L. Weber, H. M. Cann , K. K. Kidd, L. A. Zhivotovsky , and M. W. (((Feldman))). 2002. Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298:2381-2385 . Viegas , J . ( 2011) Retrieved from http:// news.discovery.com/human/genetics-neanderthal-110718.htm Cachet, M. (2012) Retrieved from Atala - A journey to the Golden Age by Marie Cachet | http://atala.fr / Brian. (2011) Retrieved from http://larvatusprodeo.net/archives/2011/01/neanderthals-r-us / Stringer, C. & Gamble, C. 1993. In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames and Hudson . Lally , R. (2012) Retrieved from Rutgers Anthropologist Sets Record Straight on Brain Size and Race | Media Relations | http://news.rutgers.edu/issue.2012-02-02.7844909214/article.2012-02-14.7247023894#. UlgZCcbkSL0 Common Genetics and Gaps: Common Genetics and Gaps According to the Max Planck Institute, the group that is heading the Neanderthal genome project, 99.7% of base pairs are common between Neanderthal and Sapiens. ( Neanderthal Genome Project, N.D.) This is similar to the type of commonality that both share with the Chimpanzee, which has been recently revised, by the Max Planck Institute, to 94%. (Neanderthal Genome Project, N.D.) This means that the genetic variation between Neanderthal and Sapiens is established at .3%. In comparison to variation between the modern human population, the widest gap is .15%, or half. ( (((Rosenberg))), Pritchard , Weber , Cann , Kidd , Zhivotovsky , and (((Feldman))) ,2002) This widest modern gap of .15% is between Africans and Non-Africans . (Why Evolution is True, N.D.) Neanderthal DNA in Modern Humans: Neanderthal DNA in Modern Humans “If your heritage is non-African, you are part Neanderthal.” ( Viegas , 2011, p.1) Again, according to the Max Planck Institute, the group that is heading the Neanderthal genome project, All non-Africans have Neanderthal DNA. (Neanderthal Genome Project, N.D .) The percentage varies, but the average for non-Africans is around 4%. Now we have to take this into the larger consideration that we established earlier that Neanderthal and Sapiens have 99.7% of their base pairs in common. (Neanderthal Genome Project, N.D.) So how do we reconcile the difference between the 4% and the .3%? According to the French research group Atala , the 4% is exclusive to Neanderthal. ( Cachet, 2012) So then we ask this question, What is the percentage of DNA in non-Africans that is exclusively from Sapiens? Again, according to Atala , it is .3% (Cachet, 2012) What does all of this mean?: What does all of this mean? My hypothesis, for which I am about to present evidence, is that Cro-Magnon, is a hybrid between Neanderthal and Sapiens. Neanderthal, having originated in Europe and moving into Asia . Sapiens, having originated in Africa, and moving into Asia and Europe. Bridging the DNA Gap: Bridging the DNA Gap - We established earlier, that the genetic variation between Neanderthal and Sapiens is .3 %. (Neanderthal Genome Project, N.D .) - We also established earlier, that the genetic variation between Africans and non-Africans is .15% ((((Rosenberg))) , Pritchard, Weber, Cann , Kidd, Zhivotovsky , and (((Feldman))) , 2002) - This leaves a remaining .15% or half of the DNA gap between Neanderthal and Africans. The article “Neanderthals Are Us”, shows the variation as 99.8% to 99.9% identical between Neanderthal and Non-Africans , the average of which is 99.85%, or half way between the .3% Neanderthal/African gap. (Brian, 2011) - Therefore, non-Africans are genetically, exactly in the middle between Neanderthal and Africans. Stated another way, Cro-Magnon, or the modern Eurasian, is genetically, an equal hybrid between the European Neanderthal and the African Sapiens. Physical Evidence: Physical Evidence Although a sensitive subject, the best physical evidence for hybridization is brain size. The difference between the brain size of the European Neanderthal and the African Sapiens is about 20%, with the European Neanderthal brain being about 20% larger than that of the African Sapiens . (Stringer & Gamble, 1993 ) Again, to establish hybridization, we would need to show that the brain size between Africans and non-Africans in modern times bridges this gap, and it does. Brain size between Africans and non-Africans in modern times does shows a difference of about 10%, with the non-African brain being about 10 % larger than that of the African brain . ( Lally , 2012 ) Conclusion: Conclusion Cro-Magnon, or the modern Eurasian, being genetically , an equal hybrid between the European Neanderthal and the African Sapiens, took the best of both parent groups. In this process, both the European Neanderthal and the African Sapiens died out in Europe and Asia, With the African Sapiens remaining only in Africa. After the establishment of Cro-Magnon, or the modern Eurasian, humanity, which to this point had been living hand to mouth in caves, broke that pattern. Cro-Magnon, or the modern Eurasian brought humanity out of the stone age and has since been responsible for virtually all invention, empire, expansion, art, and culture known to the modern age and humanity.